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    人教版高一 英语 必修 语法 复习
    高一英语必修一语法总复习 知识清单 Welcome unit: 句子成分和基本句型 Unit 1: 短语或词组 Unit 2: 现在进行时表示将来 Unit 3: 附加疑问句 Unit 4: 定语从句(关系代词引导) Unit 5: 关系副词及“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 知识精讲 Welcome unit: 句子成分和基本句型 1、 句子成分分析:(8种:主 谓 表 宾 定 状 补 同位语) 1、 主语(Subject) :动作的发出者,可由_______、________、_________、_________或_________等来充当,通常置于________。 用下划线标下列句中的主语,并指出其词性 1、 Lishui High School is a century-old school.________________ 2、 You are promising students.______________ 3、 The old should be well respected._______________ 5 To exercise regularly is good for your health.__________ 6 Smoking is harmful to your health.__________ 7 Watching a movie is enjoyable.____________ 8 What will happen tomorrow is unknown._________ 9 it’s very important for the young to study hard and gain knoeledge. 2、 谓语(Predicate): 只有动词或动词短语才能充当,置于主语之后。 类别 特点 例句 ①及物动词 (v.t) 跟宾语 The people of the world love peace. He told us an interesting stoy. ②不及物动词 (v.i) 不跟宾语 An earthquake happened in Wen Chuan. He finally arrived home on time. ③系动词 (Link-v) 跟表语 They are very busy. The children look healthy. ④助动词(aux.v) (本身无特殊意思) I didn’t go fishing. I did go to school. I have been learning English for 9 years. 用下划线标出下列句子中的谓语,并指出其词性。 ①I love my father and mother.___________ ②Tim didn’t know the reason.___________ ③We have seen the film.___________ ④They are looking for a boy.___________ ⑤A crazy learning desire exists in my class.____________ 3、表语(Predicative) 系动词之后的成分,表示主语的性质、状态和特征。 系动词分类: 1)状态系动词:be动词 2)感官动词:look, feel, smell, sound, taste, appear(似乎; 显得)seem 3)变化系动词: become, grow, turn, , get, go, come, run变(成),\. fall陷入(某种状态); 变成; 4)持续系动词: keep, stay,remain 4、宾语:动作的承受者 可以用作宾语的有名词、代词、不定式、动名词、从句等。 名词作宾语 He never forgives others for their mistakes. 代词做宾语 He often helps me. 不定式作宾语 He likes to sleep in the open air. 动名词作宾语 The Americans enjoyed living in China. 从句做宾语 I believe that they can finish the work in time We brought them some food. 主 谓 间宾 直宾 间接宾语可以放在直接宾语后面,但必须加to 或 for。 5、宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。 The boss made the workers work 12 hours a day. I saw them playing on the playground. I had my bike stolen. 划出下例句子中的宾补,并指出词性。 1. They made him manager. 2. They painted the door green. 3. I heard him sing last night. 4. They found the house old. 5. He asked me to come back soon. 6. I saw them getting on the bus. 6、定语:修饰或限制名词或代词的________, __________, ___________. Marry is an English teacher.(名词) 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep. ⑥ I am waiting for the sound of the other shoe! 7、状语。 表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、程度、条件、方式和让步等。 He goes to school by bike. 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was traveling too fast. ⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. ⑥ She loves the library because she loves books. ⑦ I am afraid that if you've lost it, you must pay for it. ⑧ The students followed Uncle Wang to see the other machine. 8、同位语 当两个指同一事物的句子成分放在同等位置时,后一个句子成分被用来说明或解释前一句子成分,后者就是叫做前者的同位语(appositive)。 We, the fresh students, are happy to spend the time here. (we 即the fresh students, 后者是对前者的补充说明) Lucy, my mother, is an actor in Hollywood. 练习:分析下列句子成分 15 1. Our school is far from my home. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you 3. All of us considered him honest. 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 6. Trees turn green when spring comes. 7. They pushed the door open. 8. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 9. He wrote some letters to his friends. 10. We need a place twice larger than this one. 11. He asked us to sing an English song. 12. We will make our school more beautiful. 13. She showed us many of her pictures. 二.基本句型 1) S V P (主+系+表) 例: 2) S V (主+谓) 例: 3) S V O (主+谓+宾) 例: 4) S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 例: 5) S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 例: 句型练习 指出下面句子分别属于哪个句型: ①I will spend this summer holiday in the countryside. ②In the modern city, there are some problems, such as air pollution, crowdness and noise. ③In the countryside I can enjoy a comfortable and quiet life. ④There, the air is fresh and the water is clean. ⑤I can hear birds singing in the green trees. ⑥I can also go boating, fishing, and swimming in the lake. ⑦He wished me good luck. ⑧So I want to go to the countryside for a change. 1. ( S + V ) _______________ 2. ( S + V +O ) _________________ 3. ( S + V + P ) ____________________ 4. ( S + V + IO + DO ) _______________ 5. ( S + V +
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