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Avesta_Welding_AB_AVESTA_WELDING_MANUAL.pdf

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    Avesta Welding AB P.O. Box 501 SE-774 27 Avesta, Sweden Tel: +46 (0)226 815 00 Fax: +46 (0)226 815 75 Email: 1180EN-GB. ISBN 91-631-5713-6. Teknisk information / Stilbildarna / Edita Vstra Aros 2004 The AVESTA WELDING MANUAL Practice and products for stainless steel welding The AVESTA WELDING MANUAL Outokumpu is a dynamic metals and technology group with a clear target to become the number one in stainless steel. Customers in a wide range of industries use our metal products, technologies and services worldwide. We are dedicated to helping our customers gain competitive advantage. We call this promise the Outokumpu factor. Reflecting excellence The Avesta Welding Manual Practice and products for stainless steel welding Avesta Welding Manual Avesta Welding AB 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of Avesta Welding AB. Information given in this manual may be subject to alteration without notice. Care has been taken to ensure that the contents of this publication are accurate but Outokumpu Stainless and its subsidiary companies do not accept responsibility for errors or for information which is found to be misleading. Suggestions for or descriptions of the end use or application of products or methods of working are for information only and Outokumpu Stainless and its affiliated companies accept no liability in respect thereof. Before using products supplied or manufactured by the company the customer should satisfy himself of their suitability. Technical editor: Martin Larn, Avesta Welding AB Printed in Sweden by Edita Vstra Aros 2004 ISBN 91-631-5713-6 Avesta Welding Manual Preface Avesta Welding AB is part of a group that is at the forefront of stainless steel technology. Designed to aid the selection of the most appropriate consumables and methods for welding stainless steels, it is hoped that the Avesta Welding Manual reflects this position. Stainless steel welding is a complex mixture of metallurgy, chemistry, geometry and aesthetics. The welds properties, e.g. corrosion resistance, have to be correct and the right surface finish has to be achieved. Consequently, the best materials and welding methods have to be chosen. Besides giving details of recommended filler metals for all kinds of steels, this manual also gives assistance in selecting the optimum welding methods and techniques. The manual is based on over 70 years of experience in making, using and welding stainless steels. One major element in this has been the development of electrodes and welding wires for high-alloy steels and specific applications. In writing this manual, the knowledge contributed by a wide range of experts has proved vital. Similarly, close collaborations with our customers have provided indispensable insights and information. It is my belief that the Avesta Welding Manual will be a valuable tool in all stainless steel welding. Our intention was to write the worlds most useful welding manual. To this end, certain themes have been prioritised above others. That is why we will be delighted to hear from customers and users not only with queries and questions, but also with opinions and suggestions. Avesta, November 2004 Jacob Sandberg President, Avesta Welding 4 Avesta Welding Manual Contents 1Stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Ferritic steels 7 Steel tables 9 Martensitic and precipitation hardening steels 14 Austenitic steels 15 Austenitic-ferritic (duplex) steels 17 The physical properties of stainless and mild steels 19 The importance of ferrite 19 2Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Welding positions 23 Heat-affected zone 24 Heat input 24 Interpass temperature 24 Penetration and dilution 25 Metal deposition rate 25 Post-weld heat treatment 25 Effect of high silicon content 26 Cast and helix 26 3Stainless steel welding methods . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Welding terminology and abbreviations 27 MMA welding 28 The Vital Arc Concept 30 MIG welding 31 TIG welding 34 SAW 35 FCAW 37 PAW 38 Laser welding 39 4Welding techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Fit-up and tack welding 41 Planning the welding sequence 43 Stringer beads versus weaving 45 Vertical-up and vertical-down welding 45 Backhand versus forehand welding 47 Width and depth 47 Distortion 48 Welding stainless to mild steel 49 Overlay welding 50 Welding clad steel plates 54 Repair welding 55 5Weld imperfections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Inspection 57 Lack of fusion 58 Incomplete penetration 59 Solidification and liquation cracking 60 Crater cracks 61 Porosity 62 Slag inclusions 63 Spatter 64 Undercut 65 Stray arcing 66 Burn-through 66 Slag islands 67 Excessive weld metal 67 6Weldin
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