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心包疾病.ppt

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    心包 疾病
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    Kaijun Cui Associated professor Sichuan University CLASSIFICATION acute pericarditis pericardial effusion cardiac tamponade constrictive pericarditis congenitally absent pericardium (uncommon) pericardial cysts (uncommon) MANIFESTATION (1)characteristic chest pain (The chest pain of acute pericarditis is usually sudden in onset, retrosternal, and pleuritic in that it is exacerbated by inspiration. The chest pain can be affected by position as patients may note lessening of the pain when they lean forward or are in the upright position.) (2) pericardial friction rub (3) suggestive electrocardiographic (ECG) changes (4) new or worsening pericardial effusion Electrocardiographic abnormalities in acute pericarditis. Diffuse up-sloping ST segment elevation is seen in leads I, II, aVF, and V1 to V6. The PR segment is elevated in the aVR lead (arrows) and subtly depressed in leads I, II, aVF, and V2 to V6 (arrowheads). Reciprocal ST-segment depression is seen in the aVR lead. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram showing the parasternal long-axis view in a patient diagnosed as having acute pericarditis. A moderate-sized pericardial effusion (PE) is present posteriorly. LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle; RV = right ventricle. Short-axis cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with delayed gadolinium enhancement in a patient with acute pericarditis. The brightly enhanced pericardium (arrowheads) is suggestive of inflammation in a patient with acute pericarditis. TREATMENT Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Colchicine Corticosteroids Overview of the diagnosis and management of acute pericarditis NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. *Corticosteroids should not be routinely used initially unless there is a rheumatologic etiology or NSAIDs and colchicine are contraindicated. CARDIAC TAMPONADE Cardiac tamponade is characterized by the accumulation of pericardial fluid under pressure. As the pericardial effusion increases, the movement of the parietal pericardium decreases. Tamponade occurs when all cardiac chambers are compressed as a result of increased intrapericardial pressure to the point of compromising systemic venous return to the right atrium (RA). Increased intrapericardial pressure reduces the myocardial transmural pressure, and the cardiac chambers become smaller, with reduced chamber diastolic compliance and a decrease in cardiac output and blood pressure. CLINICAL MANIFESTATION Symptoms Chest pain Shoulder discomfort Abdominal discomfort Nausea nExamination findings Sinus tachycardia Elevated JVP Pulsus paradoxus Friction rub ECG nSinus tachycardia nLow-voltage QRS nWidespread concave ST-segment nelevation and PR-segment ndepression nElectrical alternans Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of cardiac tamponade. A, Still-frame image of an apical 4-chamber view showing late diastolic collapse of the right atrium (RA, arrow). Persistence of RA collapse for more than onethird of the cardiac cycle is highly sensitive and specific for tamponade. B, Early diastolic collapse (arrow) of the right ventricle (RV) is specific for tamponade. C,Parasternal long-axis views showing the swinging motion of the heart within the pericardial cavity of a large pericardial effusion; the swinging motion is responsible for the electrocardiographic manifestation termed electrical alternans. Doppler echocardiographic features in cardiac tamponade. A, Schematic diagram of simultaneous electrocardiographic (ECG), respirometer (Resp), mitral valve (MV) Doppler, and pressure (Pres) changes in intrapericardial (IP) and pulmonary capillary wedge (PW) pressure. Intrapericardial pressure does not change much with respiration, whereas PW pressure decreases with inspiration (INSP), which results in respiratory variation in left ventricular filling and MV inflow Doppler velocity recording. B, Doppler mitral inflow velocities with respiratory variation; mitral E velocity is higher with expiration (EXP) than with INSP. C, Pulsed-wave Doppler recording of the hepatic vein velocities; forward flow (arrows) decreases with EXP and diastolic flow reversal increases (*) with EXP. Hemodynamics of acute cardiac tamponade by cardiac catheterization. Left, In the very early stages of cardiac tamponade, the right atrial (RA) pressure is mildly elevated, with a more pronounced a wave and a diminution of rapid y descent (arrow) suggesting left ventricular filling abnormalities. The aortic pressure (Ao) has not yet decreased because of increased vasoconstriction, and the pulse pressure remains normal. Right, As tamponade progresses, the Ao and pulse pressure significantly decrease. The further drop in Ao during inspiration (Insp) compared with expiration (Exp) is evidence of pulsus paradoxus. a = a wave; x = x descent; v = v wave. Treatment CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS Constrictive pericarditis is a potentially curable entity in patients with heart failure and normal ejection fraction; however, it is not well appreciated and is underdiagnose
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